Sehajpal Singh Dhillon1*, Simarjeet Kaur2
Mastitis in small ruminants is a complex disease that causes financial losses in the dairy sheep and goat sectors due to decreased productivity. Animal care, cleanliness and management are all critical aspects of this economically significant dairy cow disease. The biofilm formation is considered a selective advantage for pathogens causing mastitis, facilitating bacterial persistence in the udder. The pathogenic agents include a variety of gram-bacteria (gram-positive and gram-negative) that can be either contagious pathogens named Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae, Mycoplasma spp. or environmental (e.g., Escherichia coli, Streptococcus uberis). The review highlights knowledge and understanding of pathogen, strain-specific and different natural and synthetic methods used for the controls, treatment and emergency measures in the control of bovine mastitis.